“Bomb Trains” Should Not Travel Through The Limerick Site – Detailed Information

                                              BE AWARE!





  • Recent reports of crude oil derailment disasters show “bomb trains” keep exploding and turning into huge fireballs that burn for days, requiring miles-wide evacuations and resulting in devastating losses.
  • These unstoppable fires result in days-long thick black toxic smoke that are difficult, if not impossible to extinguish.
  • Crude oil trains travel frequently though Pottstown.  Officials expressed serious concerns. (8-18-15 AP).


  • Millions of people would lose their homes, businesses, and health.
  • Drinking water for almost two million people (Pottstown to Philadelphia) would become radioactive/toxic.
  • Long-term ecological damage would leave ghost towns that can’t be cleaned up safely.


  • NOT insurance companies that refuse to cover radiological accidents
  • NOT Exelon, with its government guaranteed limited liability protection
  • NOT the railroad industry, already fighting for exemption from strict liability for derailment damages
  • NOT Pennsylvania, already burdened with an enormous deficit
  • NOT the federal government, already trillions of dollars in debt and totally dysfunctional




Compiled By The Alliance For A Clean Environment (ACE)  November, 2015

aceactivists@comcast.net    acereport.org   (610) 326-2387  






Millions of people in the Greater Philadelphia Region face devastating risk from frequent railroad transport of millions of gallons of explosive, flammable, hazardous crude oil, only 1/8 of a mile from Limerick’s reactors and fuel pools.

Each shipment of explosive, flammable, hazardous crude oil traveling near Limerick’s reactors and fuel pools is estimated to contain:

  • 30,000 gallons in each rail car.  100 or more rail cars can contain over 3 million gallons.
  • Heat from the rupture and ignition of just one 30,000-gallon car can set off a chain reaction, causing other cars to explode, releasing a days-long fireball that is difficult, if not impossible to extinguish.  Basically, responders must let it burn out.

Train derailment disasters should be anticipated.  ProPublica data (2011-2014) reveals that incidents have occurred in over 250 municipalities.  Whole towns have already had to evacuate from crude-oil trains and fires.  No one should assume or suggest there will not be a crude-oil train derailment, explosion, and fire on or near the Limerick Nuclear property.

The worst of eight major crude oil train accidents and risks include:

  • A train derailment and explosion killed 47 and destroyed 30 buildings in Quebec.
  • 2,300 residents were evacuated in North Dakota. The fireball was observed several states away.
  • Serious crude-oil train derailments and fires are occurring with more frequency.  Many have occurred just since the beginning of 2015.
  • A fuel-oil train already derailed a few miles from Philadelphia.  Sixty-five tank cars bound for Philadelphia had loose, leaking, or missing safety components to prevent flammable, hazardous contents from escaping (Hazmat report – last two years).

Safer trains aren’t the answer.  A new train with a safer-design derailed in February 2015 in West Virginia, despite adhering to the speed limit.

  • Hundreds of families had to flee their homes in frigid weather
  • Burning continued for days
  • Drinking water and electricity were lost
  • Leaking crude oil poisoned the water supply
  • Fireballs erupted from crumbled tank cars, underscoring volatility of crude oil’s propane, and butane
  • Toxic water and dirt are difficult and very costly to attempt to clean up

Hoping it doesn’t happen doesn’t eliminate catastrophic risk!  Denial allows risks to continue and increase.

  • Richard Lengel, Pottstown’s Fire Chief, said in the Mercury 2-23-15, “If something catastrophic happens, there’s no municipality along the railroad that can handle it, the volume [crude oil] is too greatWe just have to hope that nothing happens, honestly.” 
  • The Pottstown Mercury 3-1-15 editorial got it right concluding, “Clearly, hope is not enough to maintain safety…”
  • No matter what claims the oil, rail, or nuclear industries make, there is no emergency plan that could effectively deal with a disaster of this magnitude within 1/8 of a mile of Limerick’s fuel pools.

Fire fighters and emergency responders shouldn’t be expected to be on the front lines of such devastating uncontrollable disasters.

  • Emergency responders are smart to be concerned.
  • Authorities say most fire and emergency departments are only capable of responding to a 9,000 gallon tanker truck incident, but DOT-111 crude oil cars hold 30,000 gallons, exceeding the response capacity.

Catastrophic disasters from crude oil explosions/fires near Limerick Nuclear Plant can and must be prevented with foresight and political will to face this unnecessary risk and take action.



  • Limerick has a history of chronic shutdown problems.  Publically available official reports show that Limerick’s reactors may not be able to be shut down safely in an emergency.
  • An explosion and days-long fire from a crude oil “bomb train” derailment could require immediate Limerick reactor shutdowns to avoid meltdowns.  This may not be possible.


  • Entire towns have been forced to evacuate after a bomb train disaster.  Limerick workers, including guards, so close to the disaster should certainly be evacuated for their own health and safety.  Yet, evacuation of Limerick workers could increase meltdown risks in Limerick’s 2 reactors and 2 fuel pools.
  • Limerick workers might be unable to access all necessary emergency equipment vital to preventing meltdowns, due to a crude oil explosion, massive heat, and extended days of thick black smoke.
  • Limerick’s control room would likely be impacted from days of thick black smoke.  Even Occidental Chemical’s vinyl chloride powder accidents (.7 of a mile from Limerick Nuclear Plant) caused Limerick’s operators to “button up” Limerick’s control room.   What would happen in days of thick black soot from a huge crude oil fire?
  • Extreme heat and soot could disturb the natural air flow needed for casks holding high-level radioactive wastes.  Blocked cask vents could go undetected in thick black smoke leading to overheating of the stored high-level radioactive wastes.


  • NRC weakened Limerick’s fire safety regulations, and still fails to enforce the weakened regulations.
  • Limerick does not use the safest fire barrier systems in all areas, to protect cables important to safe shutdown.  Even Limerick’s recent 4-5-15 fire in a reactor panel shows that Limerick is extremely vulnerable to fire that could lead to meltdowns.
  • Reduced fire safety at Limerick has new meaning in relation to days-long crude oil fires because Limerick’s fire barriers are only required to protect cables for 1 hour.
  • Without the safest fire barriers, fire detection and suppression systems, and spatial separations, Limerick plant stability is compromised. Fires can erupt in many ways at a nuclear plant.  Fires from crude oil bomb trains add significantly to Limerick’s risk of meltdowns due to fire.
  • Reactors and fuel pools need a constant supply of water to prevent meltdowns.  A crude oil fire could disable Limerick’s cooling water delivery system, resulting in simultaneous meltdowns in Limerick’s 2 reactors and 2 fuel pools.
  • Exelon’s liability limit encourages cutting corners to save money.


  • Evacuation of security guards could increase risk of a terrorist attack.
  • Terrorists could trigger a bomb train derailment,  initiating crude oil explosions and fires at any point along the lengthy rail track route on the nuclear plant site.





ACE’s evaluation of  Exelon’s fatally flawed 2012 “Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) For Limerick’s Plume Exposure Pathway” is useless as a planning tool for safe evacuation

  • Exelon’s ETE is self-serving fiction riddled with inconsistencies and inaccuracies, fact-free spin, unsubstantiated suppositions and assumptions, illogical conclusions.
  • Exelon’s ETE is not realistic and must be rejected.

To understand why Limerick Nuclear Plant’s emergency and evacuation plans are fatally flawed and inadequate, we urge you to review the 8-part ACE video-blog series on Emergency and Evacuation Plans for Limerick at www.acereport.org.   It serves as a wake-up call to millions in the Greater Philadelphia Region about Limerick Nuclear Plant’s negligent emergency and evacuation planning:

  • ACE Analysis of Exelon’s Evacuation Time Estimate For Limerick’s Plume Exposure Pathway(Video / Blog Part 7)

This analysis reveals self-serving, unrealistic, unworkable fiction, with suppositions, inconsistencies, and inaccuracies, featuring fact-free spin with illogical conclusions.

  • Historic Fatal Flaws In Limerick’s Emergency – Evacuation Plans (Video / Blog – Part  6)
  • In 2012, NRC Pared Down Emergency and Evacuation Plans, Even After Fukushima  (Video / Blog – Part  1)
  • Calls For Immediate Notification And Expanded Evacuation and Ingestion Pathway Zones   (Video /Blog – Part 2)
  • The Truth and Consequences of Radiation Exposure From Nuclear Plant Accidents / Meltdowns  (Video / Blog – Part 3)
  • What Really Happened After Fukushima, Chernobyl, and TMI Meltdowns  (Video / Blog – Part  4)
  • Financial Injustice To The Public From A Radiation Accident / Meltdown  (Video / Blog -Part  5)
  • Until Limerick Closes, Changes That Must Be Made To Limerick’s Evacuation Plan, To Minimize Radiation Exposure Risks After A Limerick Radiation Accident and/or Meltdowns   (Video / Blog – Part  8)

In 1980 NRC publicly admitted that safe evacuation from Limerick was impossible.  NRC testified at Limerick’s 1980 public hearing that Limerick had double the population density for a safe evacuation.  NRC admitted that people within 30 miles would be harmed.  Things are far worse now, since the population around Limerick has increased dramatically in the past 35 years.

Thomas Sullivan, Montgomery County Director of Public Safety, testified at a public hearing for Limerick Nuclear Plant relicensing in 2011 that many local, county, and state roads used for evacuation that feed the local highways were no longer suitable for the amount of traffic that Limerick’s EPZ evacuation could produce.  Traffic conditions have worsened, yet in 2015 Thomas Sullivan, claimed, “Because of the Limerick generating plant, we have robust plans…” (Mercury 2-23-15), dismissing potential dangers associated with the transport of crude oil.  The serious problems and flaws with Limerick’s Emergency and Evacuation plans have been ignored by Mr. Sullivan and others.


Crude-Oil Bomb Trains Travel Through Nuclear Plant Property

Crude-Oil Bomb Trains Travel Through Limerick Nuclear Plant Property

The Mercury (http://www.pottsmerc.com)

URL: http://www.pottsmerc.com/opinion/20150425/letters-safety-of-bomb-trains-is-public-health-priority

Saturday, April 25, 2015

The Mercury article of Feb. 23, “We just have to hope that nothing happens” has profound implications to everyone in the Greater Philadelphia Region. We applaud the March 1 Mercury editorial conclusion, “Clearly, hope is not enough to maintain safety…”

So-called “bomb trains” containing up to 3 million gallons of explosive, flammable, hazardous crude oil travel right through Pottstown and the Limerick Nuclear Plant Site. A derailment, explosion and days-long fire ball near Limerick’s reactors and deadly fuel pools could trigger simultaneous meltdowns with catastrophic radioactive releases. Millions of Greater Philadelphia Region residents could lose everything forever.

Days of thick black smoke from a crude oil fire could be devastating. Even Occidental Chemical’s large vinyl chloride accidents (seven-tenths of a mile from Limerick) caused problems at Limerick, according to employees, some of whom are very worried about crude oil train derailments.

Risks are increasing. Emergency responders are smart to be concerned. They shouldn’t be expected to be on the front lines of such devastating uncontrollable disasters.

Train derailment disasters should be anticipated. Sixty-five tank cars bound for Philadelphia had loose, leaking, or missing safety components to prevent flammable, hazardous contents from escaping (Hazmat report – last two years). A fuel-oil train already derailed a few miles from Philadelphia.

Heat from the rupture and ignition of one 30,000-gallon car can set off a chain reaction, causing other cars to explode, releasing a days-long fireball. Basically, responders must let it burn out.

Over 100 railcars, estimated to hold three million gallons, regularly sit on tracks from the Dollar General in Stowe to Montgomery County Community College.

ProPublica data from the federal Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (2011-2014) shows incidents in over 250 municipalities. The worst of eight major crude oil train accidents include:

• A train derailment and explosion killed 47 and destroyed 30 buildings in Quebec.

• 2,300 residents were evacuated in North Dakota. The fireball was observed states away.

Safer trains aren’t the answer. A new safer-design derailed February 2015 in West Virginia, despite adhering to the speed limit. Hundreds of families had to flee their homes in frigid weather. Burning continued for days. Drinking water and electricity were lost. Leaking crude oil poisoned the water supply. Fireballs erupted from crumbled tank cars, underscoring volatility of crude oil’s propane, butane, etc.

Safe evacuation from our densely populated region is an illusion. Limerick Nuclear Plant’s evacuation plan is unworkable and unrealistic, not robust as claimed by a health official. Just consider work hour traffic combined with deteriorated roads and bridges. We encourage officials to visit www.acereport.org to view ACE’s 2012 video-blog series on the reality of Limerick’s evacuation plan. For a graphic presentation call (610) 326-2387.

Who pays to deal with irreversible devastation from train derailments and meltdowns? Clearly, not the oil industry, nuclear industry, railroad or government. We’d be on our own, despite:

1. Long-term ecological damage that would leave ghost towns that can’t be cleaned up safely.

2. Risking the vital drinking water resource for almost two million people (Pottstown to Philadelphia).

3. Millions of people losing their homes, businesses and health.

Richard Lengel, Pottstown’s Fire Chief, admitted, “If something catastrophic happens, there’s no municipality along the railroad that can handle it, the volume [crude oil] is too great. We just have to hope that nothing happens, honestly.”

Hope is no solution! Neither is denying the reality of our unacceptable devastating risks.

The catastrophic disasters we face can, and must, be prevented with foresight and political will to face the facts and take action. Enough of corporate profits jeopardizing public safety.

Wake up! Speak up! Tell local, state and federal elected officials to stop this insanity!

Say no to dangerous crude oil trains traveling through our communities and the Limerick site.

Say no to continued Limerick Nuclear Plant operations to avoid meltdowns that can be triggered by cyber/terrorist attacks, embrittled/cracking reactors, earthquakes and now oil-train explosions/fires.

— Dr. Lewis Cuthbert

ACE President

© 2015 The Mercury (http://www.pottsmerc.com)



Terrorist Threats At Limerick Pose Catastrophic Risks

Terrorist Threats At Limerick Pose Catastrophic Risks

ACE wants a safer future for you and your family.

A 2013 Defense Department analysis said NO U.S. nuclear plant is protected against terrorist attacks, and all pose catastrophic risks.

We can avoid a Limerick Nuclear Plant catastrophe if our elected officials and government agencies stop dodging the harsh reality of risk and take action.

To insure a safer future we must transition to safer energy immediately, and close Limerick now before a terrorist attack triggers a meltdown which can be caused by loss of power and/or water.

Millions of people would suffer irreparable health harms from Limerick’s radioactive plume contaminating everything.

We would be financially ruined and permanently displaced. It’s insanity to allow that kind of unnecessary risk to continue.

After 9/11, ACE started investigating Limerick’s vulnerabilities to terrorism, plus security and evacuation problems. For details: www.acereport.org #13 “Terrorists Threats: Precaution Is Inadequate” and Video Blog Series 1-8. The reality is alarming. It’s not fear-mongering to report it in hope of prevention.

On July 30, 2014, the Mercury printed Evan Brandt’s article, “NRC Mum about Security Problem at Limerick Nuclear Plant”. It’s unacceptable for NRC to withhold information about risks from those who would be most impacted by the consequences.

For a year following 9/11, taxpayers paid for Limerick’s air defense. Since then, NRC refused to require Exelon to pay for that, despite extraordinary risks from terrorists’ planes or missiles.. If a plane or missile crashed into a fuel pool, it could result in loss of water, meltdown, and fire.

One expert reported that a fuel pool fire could cause fatal radiation-induced cancer in thousands of people as far as 500 miles from the site. “Spent fuel” rods (among the deadliest materials on earth) are jam packed in Limerick’s extremely vulnerable fuel pools, constructed with substandard cement and without extra containment walls. Like Fukushima’s, they’re directly above Limerick’s reactors.
On September 24, 2014, a PBS documentary, “Cyber Security, Rise of the Hackers”, revealed the reality of high-stakes cyber attacks. For example: the Stuxnet virus targeted an Iranian nuclear plant in 2010, destroying over 1,000 centrifuges before detection. Stuxnet, capable of spreading, could be a blueprint for cyber attacks on U.S. nuclear plants. Even a cyber attack on the grid could lead to extended loss of power and water, triggering meltdowns at Limerick.

Limerick security and NRC oversight are so lax that an Al-Qaida suspect worked undetected for 5 years (2002-2007) during Limerick re-fueling.

Inexplicably, in 2012, even after lessons from Fukushima, NRC pared down emergency evacuation planning for radiation exposure after meltdowns.

Nearly 8 million people live within 50 miles of Limerick, the evacuation zone that NRC recommended after Fukushima. Millions of people, in all directions, would suffer health harms, financial ruin, and permanent displacement, while Exelon would be liable for only a tiny fraction of the estimated one trillion dollar cost.

We can’t evacuate safely! No workable evacuation plan exists. Escape routes would be completely gridlocked.

The Montgomery County Planning Commission and the Department of Safety both warned NRC about inadequate infrastructure to support safe evacuation. Where would everyone go, with Philadelphia just over 20 miles downwind and downstream from Limerick?

The price of ignoring the public’s health and financial risks are incalculable, yet almost all our elected and agency officials have displayed callous disregard for the extraordinary terrorist threats we face related to Limerick Nuclear Plant and our future.

We can’t afford to elect more politicians like Tom Quigley, who took contributions from Exelon and publicly supported Limerick relicensing until 2049, despite ACE repeatedly informing him of irrefutable catastrophic risks, including terrorism.

Before voting 11-4-14, ask each candidate if they will help close Limerick now to protect your family.

We also encourage you to review just released 2013-2014 environmental voting records of PA state senators and representatives at www.conservationpa.org.


ACE Video Blog 3 on the Pattern of Cover-Ups and Lies About Consequences of Radiation Exposure From Nuclear Plant Accidents and Meltdowns


ACE Video / Blog – Part 3

The Truth and Consequences of Radiation Exposure

From Nuclear Plant Accidents / Meltdowns

Truth and Consequences of Radiation From Meltdowns Must Be Fully Disclosed So That People In The Greater Philadelphia Region Begin To Understand Why More Protective Limerick Nuclear Plant Emergency and Evacuation Planning Is Imperative

· The Pattern of Unethical Deception About Radiation Exposure After Meltdowns Has Created Disastrous Situations, Needlessly Magnifying Harms For Millions.

­ Victims Were Not Evacuated Soon Enough or Far Enough Away From Meltdowns. They Suffered Needlessly.

­ People Failed To Take Precautionary Actions Because They Were Lied To About Radiation Releases.

· Cover-Ups, Lies, and Secrecy About Radiation Releases and Their Consequences From Meltdowns Must Be Revealed – It’s About Ethics, Human Rights, and Minimizing Harms.

· Government and the Nuclear Industry Deceive The Public. They Manipulate Public Opinion To Reduce Opposition to Nuclear Power To Prevent Collapse of the Nuclear Industry.

· Deaths and Harmful Health Impacts Have Been Deliberately Underestimated – Using Dilution, Discounting Internal Radiation Exposure, Ignoring Diseases Other Than Cancer, Using Deceptive Testing and Estimates.

· The Truth About Consequences of Meltdowns Has Been Suppressed and Withheld – Through Worldwide Censorship of Media and Misleading Industry Propaganda That Denies Reality.

Once a Large Amount of Radiation Enters An Ecosystem It Quickly Becomes Widespread, Contaminating Water, Soil, Plants, Animals, and People

· Radiation is invisible – It also can’t be tasted, smelled, or felt by victims.

· Evidence shows radiation from meltdowns contaminates air, water, soil, and food hundreds of miles away from meltdowns.

· As Radiation moves up the food chain, it Bioaccumulates, Bioconcentrates, and Biomagnifies

· Example: Ingestion of foods contaminated with even “low levels” of radioactive cesium leads to bioaccumulation in the liver, kidneys, small intestines, pancreas, spleen, and heart and endocrine tissues.

· Children are most susceptible to effects of radiation on their internal organs.

· There is “NO SAFE RADIATION DOSE” according to The National Academy of Sciences, Physicians for Social Responsibility, and other experts.

People In The Greater Philadelphia Region Must Have Immediate Notification Of A Limerick Nuclear Plant

Radiation Accident or Meltdown With Expanded Evacuation and Ingestion Pathway Zones

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Has Lost All Credibility


Fukushima was the worst nuclear disaster in history, expected by independent experts to have worse radiation consequences than Chernobyl – estimated to have released radiation 20 times Chernobyl.

Soon after Fukushima’s meltdowns started, many Japanese people far beyond the evacuation zone started showing signs of radiation poisoning, especially children. Related deaths were certified by officials in 13 Prefectures.

Yet, NRC Told 3,000 Nuclear Experts From 34 Countries:

Fukushima Did Not Result In Big Radiation Doses to the General Population. Immediate Health Consequences Were “Very Close To Nothing,” With “Little To No” Long-Term Health Effects.

Probably Met NRC Safety Goals.

NRC Needs New Standards For Fukushima Type Disasters.

How Can We Believe NRC About Anything?

NRC Protects Nuclear Industry Profits At The Expense Of Public Health and Safety

· NRC is failing in its mission to protect public health and safety.

· In spite of credible evidence from Chernobyl and Fukushima meltdowns proving radiation released travels hundreds of miles and has devastating impacts on health, especially for children, and in spite of NRC warning U.S. citizens to evacuate 50 miles from Fukushima, NRC is still denying the need to expand U.S. evacuation zones beyond 10 miles and ingestion pathway zones beyond 50 miles.

· NRC disregards reliable independent scientific research and fails to fully disclose harmful impacts from routine and accidental radiation releases with deceptively designed word-smithing.

NRC is using industry biased studies to deceive the public about actual consequences of radiation exposure from meltdowns.

NRC is refusing to provide more realistic protective planning for Limerick Nuclear Plant and others.

Flawed MIT Study Is Being Used By NRC

To Dismiss The Need For Nuclear Disaster Evacuations

(May 25th, 2012) Previous Study Disputes MIT Claim (Tanaka et al , 2009)

The flawed study discounted credible human data compiled after Chernobyl and Fukushima meltdowns.

MIT Awarded More Than $2 Million in Grants And Fellowships

(May 21, 2012) http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/mit-doe-grants-fellowships.html Nuclear science and engineering

$1.65 million was awarded through grants from the Department of Energy Nuclear Energy University Programs and $450,000 was awarded through graduate student fellowships. “Scholarship for Nuclear Communications and Methods for Evaluation of Nuclear Project Acceptability” will develop a model to characterize the factors affecting social acceptance of nuclear projects by potential stakeholders.

MIT Mouse Radiation Study Is Science Fiction (June 7th, 2012 Video)

See Why MIT’s study is pure science fiction, not fact: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8YFe6Q08M8&feature=em-subs_digest

NRC’s response to Fukushima meltdowns was to ignore reality and arrange for MIT do a selection-bias study, using a 35-day short-term mouse study to make it seem as if impacts from radiation exposure are harmless. The MIT study excluded extensive evidence of genetic damage to humans living in a radiation-contaminated environment. Nineteen groups of Children from Chernobyl showed lasting genetic damage from radiation.

A Radioactive Conflict of Interest (June 25th, 2012)

Having the Energy Department control radiation health research makes as much sense as giving tobacco companies the authority to see if smoking is bad for you.

MIT Confronted With Its Malpractice of Science (June 25, 2012)


The MIT Radiation Study Was Confronted With Its Malpractice Of Science. The Study Protocol was flawed. It’s the worst kind of bias, the kind paid to ignore human suffering. “It’s difficult to get someone to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it.”

MIT Mouse Study Debunked In Journal (November 13th, 2012)

Biased Protocols Included:

· The use of genetically altered FYDR mice for one portion of the study but not the comparison groups.

· The wide range in the numbers of mice used in the comparison groups.

· The time frame was too short (Tanaka paper)

· External radiation was the only radiation studied. Internal radiation was not studied, but presents the bigger risk.

· The study left out crucial information that children may have a 3-fold higher risk for damage from radiation at half the accumulated MIT dose.

Independent Research And Evidence Dispel MIT’s Radiation Deception:

A body of independent research on radiation, as well as evidence from actual meltdowns, reveal the truth and consequences of radiation exposure from nuclear plants like Limerick.

· There is NO safe level of radiation exposure, according to the National Academy of Sciences and Physicians for Social Responsibility.

· Ionizing radiation from nuclear plants damages living things and can contaminate the environment permanently.

· Nuclear Plant radiation mutates genes which can cause genetic damage across generations.

· U.S. and European studies have all shown increases in cancer around nuclear facilities.

· Drastic increases in cancer are documented, especially in children, in communities near Limerick Nuclear Plant and Montgomery County, home of Limerick Nuclear Plant , since Limerick Nuclear Plant started operating in1985. (See ACE Website Download #2: “Cancer – Skyrocketing Increases: Links to Limerick”)

Human Health Consequences Resulting From Radiation Releases After Meltdowns At Fukushima, Chernobyl, and Three Mile Island Have Been Revealed By Independent Research:

· Based on the amount of radiation releases over 1.5 million excess cancers are expected from Fukushima.

· Over 1.5 million excess cancers occurred over 25 years from Chernobyl, “Consequences To People And The Environment” – New York Academy of Science nyas.org/annals

· Partial meltdown at TMI may have caused 50,000 to 100,000 excess deaths. Read: “Deadly Deceit: Low Level Radiation – High Level Cover-up” by Jay Gould and Ben Goldman, 1990

Radiation and Public Health Project Director, Joseph Mangano’s Two Excellent Books Reveal Truth And Consequences About Radiation Exposure


The Only Study Of Radiation Levels In Bodies Of Americans Living Near Nuclear Plants – Includes Data On Limerick Nuclear Plant.


Includes An Account of Consequences From Nuclear Accidents and Meltdowns, Plus A Point-by-Point Refutation of Pro-Nuke Arguments.

“There Is NO Safe Level Of Radionuclide Exposure Whether From Food, Water, Or Other Sources. PERIOD!”

Dr. Jeff Patterson, Former President of Physicians for Social Responsibility, Said:

Exposure to Radionuclides, like Iodine-131 and Cesium-137, INCREASES Risk of Cancer.”

Radiation Exposure Can Affect The Whole Body

The broad range of radionuclides that are present in radioactive releases from nuclear power plants have been linked to damage to: Bladder, Bone, Brain, Breast, Kidneys, Liver, Lungs, Muscles, Ovaries, Pancreas, Skin, Spleen, Thyroid

Radiation Sickness Symptoms Appear in One to Four Weeks and Can Be Mistaken for Other Illnesses Like the Flu:

· Within the first twenty-four hours, symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, fever, etc.

· Within one to four weeks, symptoms can include dizziness, disorientation, weakness and fatigue, hair loss, bloody vomit and stools, infections, poor wound healing, and low blood pressure.

There Is No Way to Undo Damaging Effects Of Radiation Exposure

To Minimize Exposure

· Time Limit Exposure

· Distance Between You and Radiation

· Shielding Learn About Best Sheltering Procedures

For Radiation Exposure Summaries See: www.acereport.org

#1 Radiation – Limerick’s Routine Releases

#3 Radiation – No Safe dose

#4 Radiation – Reduce Risk

Over 8 Million People Live Within 50 Miles Of Limerick

How Close Do You Live To Limerick Nuclear Plant?

See Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)

Radiation Plume Map www.nrdc.org




Contact Elected Officials Today To Demand That NRC Require More Protective Emergency Planning Including:

1. Immediate Public Notification By Exelon and NRC

2. Independent Radiation Monitoring With Electronic

Radiation Alert System

3. A 50-Mile Evacuation Zone

4. A 100-Mile Ingestion Pathway Zone

Fukushima and Chernobyl Meltdowns Prove Radioactive Fallout Traveled Far Greater Distances Than 50 Miles. The Radioactive Ingestion Pathway Went Far Beyond 100 Miles.

Facts About Fukushima Fallout:

· Japan’s long-lived radiation contaminated more than 11,500 square miles. (Reported 11-11)

· An area almost the size of Connecticut (some 4,500 square miles) was found to have radiation levels exceeding Japan’s shameful highly inflated allowable radiation limit.

· The radioactively-contaminated exclusion zones surrounding Fukushima cover more than 300 square miles.

Facts About Chernobyl Fallout:

· Evacuations spread over the years as far as 200 miles away from the reactor. Approximately 350,400 people were evacuated from the areas surrounding Chernobyl.

· 80 square miles were declared too radioactive for human habitation and declared a permanent “exclusion” zone.

Yet, Limerick’s Emergency and Evacuation Zone Remains Set At Only 10-Miles. Limerick’s Ingestion Pathway Zone Remains Set At Just 50 Miles. This Is Negligence!

1974 Reactor Safety Study Published by NRC (Referred To As The Rasmussen Report)

· 45,000 Radiation Sickness Cases (Requiring Hospitalization)

· 3,300 Deaths (From Acute Radiation Sickness)

· 45,000 Fatal Cancers (over 50 years)

· 250,000 Non-Fatal Cancers (over 50 years)

· 190 Children Born With Birth Defects Per Year

Note: Non-Insurable Property Damage Was Estimated At $14 Billion

NRC’s Estimated Consequences For An Accident At Limerick Nuclear Power Plant, Reported To Congress In 1982 (Referred to as the CRAC Report):

· 74,000 Early Fatalities

· 610,000 Early Injuries

· 34,000 Cancer Deaths

Census Records From 1980 to 2010 Show That These Numbers Would Be Drastically Higher Today.

This Population Increase Demands Updated Planning.

The Following News Articles and Reports Provide Overwhelming Evidence Of NRC’s Negligent, Ineffective, Unprotective Policies:

· 03/21/11 NRC Increases Estimated “Background” Doses to Radiation Again

· 04/05/11 “NRC’s Pro-Nuke Spin on Evacuation Zones”

· 06/02/11 Some fear U.S. nuclear agency is playing ‘regulatory roulette’


· 07/29/11 NRC Lowers Estimate of How Many Would Die in Meltdown By Matthew Wald

· 08/30/11 NRC: Update evacuation plans near nuclear plants AP – By Matthew Daly

Article exposes no changes to evacuation zones which have remained frozen at a 10-mile radius around each

plant since they were set in 1978, regardless of aging reactors operating at higher power, risking larger

radioactive releases, and skyrocketing populations around some plants – as high as 4 1/2 times higher.

· 09/11/11 Agencies Struggle To Craft Offsite Cleanup Plan For Nuclear Power Accidents November 10, 2010

http://insideepa.com/Inside-EPA-General/Inside-EPA-Public-Content/agencies-struggle-to-craft-offsite-cleanup-plan- for-nuclear-power-accidents/menu-id-565.html

While no agency is taking responsibility for attempting to clean up after a nuclear disaster, all these agencies ignore or miss the fact that nuclear “accidents” NEVER end. Will they ever admit that a nuclear plant worst case scenario is likely to be just too bad to clean up?

NRC and Industry’s Attempt To Hide The Real Risk From Nuclear Plant Radiation

Bogus Comparisons:

· The nuclear industry and NRC intentionally ignore and deny harms from continuous routine radiation exposure from nuclear plant releases. They repeatedly, absurdly dismiss harm from continuous exposure to over 100 radionuclides routinely discharged from nuclear plants and make bogus comparisons to radiation from sunshine, X-rays, and airplane trips.

· The broad range of nuclear plant radionuclides routinely released cause additive, cumulative, and synergistic internal and external radiation damage. Once in the ecosystem, people living in the region of a nuclear plant cannot avoid these exposures. They cannot see it, taste it, feel it, or smell it.


Look For ACE Report Video-Blog Series Starting in 2013

Starting in January 2013, ACE will begin a Video-Blog Series addressing the need to improve and update Limerick Nuclear Plant’s outdated, flawed, and inadequate emergency and evacuation plans. Each 15 minute video will be uploaded to YouTube, and also be included with an accompanying Blog Post with detailed information on our website. An overview of the series follows.

Minimizing Chaos and Reducing Radiation Exposure By Improving Limerick Nuclear Plant’s Fatally Flawed And Inadequate Emergency and Evacuation Plans.

This ACE Report Video and Blog Series Should Serve As A Wake-Up Call To Millions In The Greater Philadelphia Region Related To Limerick Nuclear Plant’s Negligent Emergency and Evacuation Planning.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Limerick Nuclear Plant’s regulator, is required to protect our health and safety, but a body of evidence shows that NRC is instead protecting the financial bottom line of Exelon. NRC’s deceitful claims and actions demonstrate that NRC is failing to fulfill their required duties to protect us.

NRC’s historical and current failures and corruption in policies and decision making are compromising and further jeopardizing millions of people whose lives could be harmed or ruined permanently as the result of a Limerick Nuclear Plant Radioactive Accident and/or Meltdown.

This series of ACE Report Videos and Blogs will identify problems and flaws with Limerick’s Emergency and Evacuation plans. It will reveal why we and our elected officials must demand a system for immediate independent public notification of a Limerick accidental radioactive release, and demand updated and improved planning for expanded evacuation and ingestion pathway zones.

The Alliance For A Clean Environment www.acereport.org
January to March – 2013

Video / Blog Part 1
In 2012, NRC Pared Down Emergency and Evacuation Plans, Even After Fukushima

Video / Blog Part 2
Calls For Immediate Notification And Expanded Evacuation and Ingestion Pathway Zones

Video / Blog Part 3
The Truth and Consequences of Radiation Exposure From Nuclear Plant Accidents / Meltdowns

Video / Blog Part 4
What Really Happened After Fukushima, Chernobyl, and TMI Meltdowns

Video / Blog Part 5
Financial Injustice To The Public From A Radiation Accident / Meltdown

Video / Blog Parts 6 and 7
Fatal Flaws In Emergency – Evacuation Plans for Limerick Nuclear Power Plant

Video / Blog Part 8
Regional Campaign To Improve Limerick Nuclear Plant’s Evacuation Plan, Including Immediate Public Notification and Expanded Evacuation And Ingestion Pathway Zones

Limerick Nuclear Plant Must Shut Down Before It Melts Down

The Alliance For A Clean Environment ACE Website Blog Post

Blog Post #3 – May 13, 2012

Limerick Nuclear Plant Must Shut Down Before It Melts Down

1. Meltdowns Can Be Triggered By Loss of Power and Loss of Water.
 Earthquakes Can Trigger Meltdowns.
 Limerick Is Considered A VERY High Risk Nuke Plant – 3rd On The Nation’s Quake-Risk List
 The Questions Is – Why Was Limerick Allowed To Be Constructed Here Right Over An Earthquake Fault, And So Close To So Many Others, Including One That Has Been Active?

In 1972 – Limerick Proceeded Without A License For Construction Or Permission -
BEFORE Limerick’s Earthquake Study Was Even Completed In 1974
– Exelon’s Fact Sheet Claims Limerick Construction Began In 1974.
• But November 15, 2972, before PECO ever received a permit, a mammoth 90-wheel truck, escorted by police, carried a new nuclear reactor vessel to the Limerick site in Pottstown.
• Attorney Lawrence Sager told the Mercury,
“It shows … arrogance of the utility. It has no license for construction, nor permission to proceed, and yet they moved the vital parts onto the site.”

Cover Up? Evaluate NRC’s Omissions and/or Confusion Regarding Earthquake Faults Under and Near Limerick Nuclear Plant. You decide.

- ACE members recently confirmed that there is a fault right under the Limerick Nuclear Plant site. They discovered this in the Pottstown Library from a 1974 geological study done for Limerick’s original licensing,
• The Sanatoga Fault is right under Limerick Nuclear Plant, yet NRC failed to disclose that fault under Limerick or two others within 2 miles of Limerick when asked to identify the closest faults to Limerick by a local Mother very concerned after knowing an earthquake triggered the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.

- Two other faults were identified by NRC in a letter and map sent to the resident 10/11 – After multiple requests and over 5 months after the original 5-11 request.
• The resident’s letter and map identified ONLY faults 9 and 17 miles from Limerick.
9 miles – Chalfont Fault 17 miles away – Ramapo Fault
• At NRC”s 4-18-12 meeting in Limerick, NRC officials appeared totally unaware of the fault right under Limerick Nuclear Plant.
• The NRC official who sent the letter and map which failed to identify the fault under Limerick, admitted 4-18-12 that the Ramapo fault 17 miles from Limerick was active with 2 or 3 quakes.
• He also expressed concern about the quarry next to the Limerick site.

- A cover-up to construct Limerick? Just Like North Anna in Virginia?
• The geological study revealing the Sanatoga Fault right under Limerick Nuclear Plant was completed in 1974.
• But in 1972, the first Limerick reactor was already delivered to the site.
• There was a documented earthquake fault cover-up in order to push through the construction of North Anna. The risk was uncovered and challenged in court, but the company only paid a fine and proceeded with construction.
• Limerick’s generator was already delivered before the earthquake study was reported.
• Now it appears to many, that NRC is covering up the risk, after the fact.
• 5-9-12 NRC responded to ACE questions 4-18-12 about the fault under Limerick. NRC points to 3 faults within 2 miles of Limerick, but fails to address the fact that the Sanatoga Fault is directly under the Limerick Nuclear Plant site.
• NRC points us to a 1983 Safety Evaluation Report which concludes there are “no capable faults” in the site area. That study is outdated and no longer valid based on new information. In 2011 we saw earthquakes becoming far stronger and more frequent, a risk that will only increase with fracking of thousands of gas wells in PA.
• NRC even contradicted that conclusion when admitting the Ramapo fault is active.

- Earthquake threats are stronger and more frequent
• Earthquakes Triggered Fukushima Meltdowns
• 8-23-12 Virginia quake shook our region – Limerick had to check for damage, but the place an earthquake is most likely to cause damage is also the place hardest to inspect – underground.
• Damage is hard to detect in the miles of buried underground pipes and cables under the 600 acre Limerick site. What could happen from earthquakes in faults so close to and under Limerick?

- Fracking Could Trigger An Earthquake at Limerick
• A 2012 USGS study confirmed that fracking can trigger earthquakes
• In PA 4,200 natural gas wells have been approved since 2007
• Many, including a high-ranking NRC official, are even concerned about the quarry very close to Limerick, especially now knowing there is a fault right under Limerick.

- Limerick is considered a high-risk nuke, ranked 3rd on the nation’s quake-risk list
• Yet, Limerick is not required to comply with KEY seismic safety upgrades until 2017
NRC’S NEGLIGENT EXCUSE – “Limited Resources – Prioritizing” Rick Ennis 4-18-12
NRC couldn’t answer how you fix earthquake faults under and too close to Limerick.

2. Safety of Limerick’s Design Was Challenged In 1981 In Federal Court,
YEARS BEFORE Limerick Completion. Construction Should Have Been
Halted In 1981, Pending The Decision. It Was About Safety In Design

In 1981 Limerick Ecology Action sued in federal court – Accusing NRC (AEC) of:
- Violating the National Environmental Policy Act
- Not Considering Safety Enhancing Design Alternatives For Limerick Nuclear Plant.
NRC was ordered to listen to LEA’s proposals by the 3rd circuit court of appeals in Philadelphia.
- The order was a major embarrassment to NRC and setback for PECO.
Reported in Mercury “David Against Federal Goliath” – September 28, 1997
The case dragged on nearly 9 years – the decision came too late:
- Unit 1 was Finished
- Unit 2 Completion was Approved.

3. Limerick’s Design Flaws Are A Serious Threat To The Entire Philadelphia
- Limerick’s reactor containment is substandard, meaning more radiation would be released in an accident or attack.
- 9-22-11 A quality assurance engineer at the time cement was poured for Limerick’s fuel pools testified that cement was faulty.
- 5-9-12 – NRC substantiated that “there were deviations in a concrete pour for the spent fuel pool.”
- NRC admitted to ACE 5-9-12 – At the time of construction NRC (AEC) claimed there would be “no adverse effect on the structural adequacy of the spent fuel pool”. In other words, even with potentially deadly consequences, NRC overlooked and allowed substandard cement to be used for very critical fuel pool construction.
- That negligent conclusion was accepted decades ago, but NOT NOW, with increasing threats to Limerick’s fuel pool integrity from both earthquakes and terrorist attacks,
- The quality assurance engineer, Dan Ely, expressed heightened concerns 9-22-11, due to increased risk of stronger and more frequent earthquakes and other natural disasters.
This should be enough of a concern to NRC and elected officials in our entire region to call for closure of Limerick to prevent devastation to the entire Philadelphia region.

4. Limerick’s Densely Packed Deadly Fuel Pools Are Highly Vulnerable To

- Cement holding Limerick’s Deadly Radioactive Wastes Is Substandard.

- Large volumes (over 6,000 assemblies-1,000 tons), of Limerick’s highly radioactive wastes (spent fuel rods) are stored in Limerick’s densely packed fuel pools, elevated five stories above and outside the reinforced containment structure for the reactor.

- After decades of holding all Limerick’s highly radioactive and heated “spent fuel” rods, Limerick’s substandard cement could crumble like a tea cup from a strong earthquake or a terrorist attack with a plane or missile.

- Limerick’s Fuel Pools are similar to Fukushima’s, but Limerick’s 2 fuel pools hold far more deadly spent fuel than 4 of Fukushima’s.

- A 2011 Study On DOE Records Shows Limerick’s 2 Fuel Pools Hold:
• Almost three times more than four of Fukushima’s fuel pools
• Far more than many U.S. nuclear plants, including Exelon’s TMI and Oyster Creek
• Far more than the reactors

- With loss of cooling water, Limerick’s fuel rods can heat up, self-ignite, and burn in an unstoppable fire.

- Fire in a spent fuel pool could release enough cesium-137 “to render about 95,000 square kilometers of land uninhabitable” (Comparable to covering about 75% of New York)

- Loss of water from Limerick’s fuel pools could create a disaster far worse than Chernobyl and 100 times worse than Hiroshima.

- A meltdown from loss of water in a spent fuel pool could cause fatal radiation-induced cancer in thousands of people as far as 500 miles from the site according to a 2000 NRC study.

- Limerick’s “Spent Fuel” pools are at high risk from loss of cooling water due to:
• Earthquakes
• Leakage and/or Evaporation
• Reactor Failure
• Explosion Inside or Outside Pool Building
• Terrorist Acts Including Aircraft Impact or Missiles

- Fuel Pools are especially vulnerable to aircraft penetration. Still, Exelon has not been required to spend the money to guard Limerick against terrorists’ missiles or air strikes.

- A 2004 Study by Dr. Edwin Lyman, Senior Scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists, Concluded:
• As many as 44,000 near-term deaths from acute radiation poisoning
• 518,000 long term deaths from cancer.
• Deaths could occur among people living as far as 60 miles downwind.
- A 2003 study by Dr. Frank Von Hippel, Director of Science and Global Security at Princeton University, concluded that:
• A successful terrorist attack on a spent fuel storage pool could have consequences “significantly worse than Chernobyl.”
• A catastrophic spent fuel fire could release a radiation plume that could contaminate 8 to 70 times more land than Chernobyl. (Would include the entire Philadelphia Metropolitan Region).
- How dangerous is “spent fuel”?
• Standing 1 yard away unshielded can cause death in less than 3 minutes.
• 30 seconds of exposure can cause significant increased risk of cancer and genetic damage.

5. Deja Vu – Limerick’s Serious Safety Concerns Are Being Ignored By NRC
Yet Again.
- In 2011, the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Intervened On Our Behalf Against Limerick Nuclear Plant Relicensing, Accusing Limerick of Dodging A New Safety Study
- NRDC Said “Limerick’s Safety Analysis Is Decades Out Of Date. A New Limerick Safety Analysis Is Necessary.” NRDC Cited Limerick’s Obsolete Severe Accident Mitigation Study. NRDC’s Director Said,
• “After Fukushima, it seems just plain nutty not to require a new study on Limerick’s Boiling Water Reactors similar to those at Fukushima.”
• “Exelon and NRC blithely maintain they have NO reason to take another look at Limerick’s Severe Accident Mitigation Analysis”
- The licensing board ruled in favor of NRDC, but Exelon and NRC (the agency supposedly protecting our safety) appealed the decision, even though this is about our safety.
Why would Exelon and NRC fight so hard against a new safety study?
- Many believe Limerick should have to close as a result of a new safety study.

Dr. Lewis Cuthbert
ACE President